Owlcation

Research Essay Proposal Sample

Skip to main content

USC Libraries
University of Southern California

 

Research Guides

Ask a Librarian

  1. University of Southern California

  2. Research Guides

  3. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

  4. Writing a Research Proposal

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Writing a Research Proposal

The purpose of this guide is to provide advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social sciences.

  • Purpose of Guide

  • Types of Research Designs


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Design Flaws to Avoid

    • Independent and Dependent Variables

    • Glossary of Research Terms

  • 1. Choosing a Research Problem


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Narrowing a Topic Idea

    • Broadening a Topic Idea

    • Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea

  • 2. Preparing to Write


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Academic Writing Style

    • Choosing a Title

    • Making an Outline

    • Paragraph Development

  • 3. The Abstract


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Executive Summary

  • 4. The Introduction


    Toggle Dropdown

    • The C.A.R.S. Model

    • Background Information

    • The Research Problem/Question

    • Theoretical Framework

  • 5. The Literature Review


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Citation Tracking

    • Content Alert Services

    • Evaluating Sources

    • Reading Research Effectively

    • Primary Sources

    • Secondary Sources

    • Tiertiary Sources

    • What Is Scholarly vs. Popular?

  • 6. The Methodology


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Qualitative Methods

    • Quantitative Methods

  • 7. The Results


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Using Non-Textual Elements

  • 8. The Discussion


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Limitations of the Study

  • 9. The Conclusion


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Appendices

  • 10. Proofreading Your Paper


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Common Grammar Mistakes

    • Writing Concisely

  • 11. Citing Sources


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Avoiding Plagiarism

    • Footnotes or Endnotes?

    • Further Readings

  • Annotated Bibliography

  • Giving an Oral Presentation


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Dealing with Nervousness

    • Using Visual Aids

  • Grading Someone Else’s Paper

  • How to Manage Group Projects


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Types of Structured Group Activities

    • Group Project Survival Skills

  • Writing a Book Review


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Multiple Book Review Essay

    • Reviewing Collected Essays

  • Writing a Case Study

  • Writing a Field Report


    Toggle Dropdown

    • About Informed Consent

    • Writing Field Notes

  • Writing a Policy Memo

  • Writing a Research Proposal

  • Acknowledgements


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Bibliography

Definition

The goal of a research proposal is to present and justify the need to study a research problem and to present the practical ways in which the proposed study should be conducted. The design elements and procedures for conducting the research are governed by standards within the predominant discipline in which the problem resides, so guidelines for research proposals are more exacting and less formal than a general project proposal. Research proposals contain extensive literature reviews. They must provide persuasive evidence that a need exists for the proposed study. In addition to providing a rationale, a proposal describes detailed methodology for conducting the research consistent with requirements of the professional or academic field and a statement on anticipated outcomes and/or benefits derived from the study’s completion.


Krathwohl, David R. How to Prepare a Dissertation Proposal: Suggestions for Students in Education and the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2005.

How to Approach Writing a Research Proposal

Your professor may assign the task of writing a research proposal for the following reasons:

  • Develop your skills in thinking about and designing a comprehensive research study;
  • Learn how to conduct a comprehensive review of the literature to ensure a research problem has not already been answered [or you may determine the problem has been answered ineffectively] and, in so doing, become better at locating scholarship related to your topic;
  • Improve your general research and writing skills;
  • Practice identifying the logical steps that must be taken to accomplish one’s research goals;
  • Critically review, examine, and consider the use of different methods for gathering and analyzing data related to the research problem; and,
  • Nurture a sense of inquisitiveness within yourself and to help see yourself as an active participant in the process of doing scholarly research.

A proposal should contain all the key elements involved in designing a completed research study, with sufficient information that allows readers to assess the validity and usefulness of your proposed study. The only elements missing from a research proposal are the findings of the study and your analysis of those results. Finally, an effective proposal is judged on the quality of your writing and, therefore, it is important that your writing is coherent, clear, and compelling.

Regardless of the research problem you are investigating and the methodology you choose, all research proposals must address the following questions:

  1. What do you plan to accomplish? Be clear and succinct in defining the research problem and what it is you are proposing to research.
  2. Why do you want to do it? In addition to detailing your research design, you also must conduct a thorough review of the literature and provide convincing evidence that it is a topic worthy of study. Be sure to answer the "So What?" question.
  3. How are you going to do it? Be sure that what you propose is doable. If you’re having trouble formulating a research problem to propose investigating, go here .

Common Mistakes to Avoid

  • Failure to be concise; being "all over the map" without a clear sense of purpose.
  • Failure to cite landmark works in your literature review.
  • Failure to delimit the contextual boundaries of your research [e.g., time, place, people, etc.].
  • Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive argument for the proposed research.
  • Failure to stay focused on the research problem; going off on unrelated tangents.
  • Sloppy or imprecise writing, or poor grammar.
  • Too much detail on minor issues, but not enough detail on major issues.

Procter, Margaret. The Academic Proposal .  The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Sanford, Keith. Information for Students: Writing a Research Proposal . Baylor University; Wong, Paul T. P. How to Write a Research Proposal . International Network on Personal Meaning. Trinity Western University; Writing Academic Proposals: Conferences, Articles, and Books . The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Writing a Research Proposal . University Library. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Structure and Writing Style

Beginning the Proposal Process

As with writing a regular academic paper, research proposals are generally organized the same way throughout most social science disciplines. Proposals vary between ten and twenty-five pages in length. However, before you begin, read the assignment carefully and, if anything seems unclear, ask your professor whether there are any specific requirements for organizing and writing the proposal.

A good place to begin is to ask yourself a series of questions:

  • What do I want to study?
  • Why is the topic important?
  • How is it significant within the subject areas covered in my class?
  • What problems will it help solve?
  • How does it build upon [and hopefully go beyond] research already conducted on the topic?
  • What exactly should I plan to do, and can I get it done in the time available?

In general, a compelling research proposal should document your knowledge of the topic and demonstrate your enthusiasm for conducting the study. Approach it with the intention of leaving your readers feeling like–"Wow, that’s an exciting idea and I can’t wait to see how it turns out!"


In general your proposal should include the following sections:

I.  Introduction

In the real world of higher education, a research proposal is most often written by scholars seeking grant funding for a research project or it’s the first step in getting approval to write a doctoral dissertation. Even if this is just a course assignment, treat your introduction as the initial pitch of an idea or a thorough examination of the significance of a research problem. After reading the introduction, your readers should not only have an understanding of what you want to do, but they should also be able to gain a sense of your passion for the topic and be excited about the study’s possible outcomes. Note that most proposals do not include an abstract [summary] before the introduction.

Think about your introduction as a narrative written in one to three paragraphs that succinctly answers the following four questions:

  1. What is the central research problem?
  2. What is the topic of study related to that problem?
  3. What methods should be used to analyze the research problem?
  4. Why is this important research, what is its significance, and why should someone reading the proposal care about the outcomes of the proposed study?

II.  Background and Significance

This section can be melded into your introduction or you can create a separate section to help with the organization and narrative flow of your proposal. This is where you explain the context of your proposal and describe in detail why it’s important. Approach writing this section with the thought that you can’t assume your readers will know as much about the research problem as you do. Note that this section is not an essay going over everything you have learned about the topic; instead, you must choose what is relevant to help explain the goals for your study.

To that end, while there are no hard and fast rules, you should attempt to address some or all of the following key points:

  • State the research problem and give a more detailed explanation about the purpose of the study than what you stated in the introduction. This is particularly important if the problem is complex or multifaceted.
  • Present the rationale of your proposed study and clearly indicate why it is worth doing. Answer the "So What? question [i.e., why should anyone care].
  • Describe the major issues or problems to be addressed by your research. Be sure to note how your proposed study builds on previous assumptions about the research problem.
  • Explain how you plan to go about conducting your research. Clearly identify the key sources you intend to use and explain how they will contribute to your analysis of the topic.
  • Set the boundaries of your proposed research in order to provide a clear focus. Where appropriate, state not only what you will study, but what is excluded from the study.
  • If necessary, provide definitions of key concepts or terms.

III.  Literature Review

Connected to the background and significance of your study is a section of your proposal devoted to a more deliberate review and synthesis of prior studies related to the research problem under investigation. The purpose here is to place your project within the larger whole of what is currently being explored, while demonstrating to your readers that your work is original and innovative. Think about what questions other researchers have asked, what methods they have used, and what is your understanding of their findings and, where stated, their recommendations. Do not be afraid to challenge the conclusions of prior research. Assess what you believe is missing and state how previous research has failed to adequately examine the issue that your study addresses. For more information on writing literature reviews, GO HERE .

Since a literature review is information dense, it is crucial that this section is intelligently structured to enable a reader to grasp the key arguments underpinning your study in relation to that of other researchers. A good strategy is to break the literature into "conceptual categories" [themes] rather than systematically describing groups of materials one at a time. Note that conceptual categories generally reveal themselves after you have read most of the pertinent literature on your topic so adding new categories is an on-going process of discovery as you read more studies. How do you know you’ve covered the key conceptual categories underlying the research literature? Generally, you can have confidence that all of the significant conceptual categories have been identified if you start to see repetition in the conclusions or recommendations that are being made.

To help frame your proposal’s literature review, here are the "five C’s" of writing a literature review:

  1. Cite, so as to keep the primary focus on the literature pertinent to your research problem.
  2. Compare the various arguments, theories, methodologies, and findings expressed in the literature: what do the authors agree on? Who applies similar approaches to analyzing the research problem?
  3. Contrast the various arguments, themes, methodologies, approaches, and controversies expressed in the literature: what are the major areas of disagreement, controversy, or debate?
  4. Critique the literature: Which arguments are more persuasive, and why? Which approaches, findings, methodologies seem most reliable, valid, or appropriate, and why? Pay attention to the verbs you use to describe what an author says/does [e.g., asserts, demonstrates, argues, etc.].
  5. Connect the literature to your own area of research and investigation: how does your own work draw upon, depart from, synthesize, or add a new perspective to what has been said in the literature?

IV.  Research Design and Methods

This section must be well-written and logically organized because you are not actually doing the research, yet, your reader must have confidence that it is worth pursuing. The reader will never have a study outcome from which to evaluate whether your methodological choices were the correct ones. Thus, the objective here is to convince the reader that your overall research design and methods of analysis will correctly address the problem and that the methods will provide the means to effectively interpret the potential results. Your design and methods should be unmistakably tied to the specific aims of your study.

Describe the overall research design by building upon and drawing examples from your review of the literature. Consider not only methods that other researchers have used but methods of data gathering that have not been used but perhaps could be. Be specific about the methodological approaches you plan to undertake to obtain information, the techniques you would use to analyze the data, and the tests of external validity to which you commit yourself [i.e., the trustworthiness by which you can generalize from your study to other people, places, events, and/or periods of time].

When describing the methods you will use, be sure to cover the following:

  • Specify the research operations you will undertake and the way you will interpret the results of these operations in relation to the research problem. Don’t just describe what you intend to achieve from applying the methods you choose, but state how you will spend your time while applying these methods [e.g., coding text from interviews to find statements about the need to change school curriculum; running a regression to determine if there is a relationship between campaign advertising on social media sites and election outcomes in Europe].
  • Keep in mind that a methodology is not just a list of tasks; it is an argument as to why these tasks add up to the best way to investigate the research problem. This is an important point because the mere listing of tasks to be performed does not demonstrate that, collectively, they effectively address the research problem. Be sure you explain this.
  • Anticipate and acknowledge any potential barriers and pitfalls in carrying out your research design and explain how you plan to address them. No method is perfect so you need to describe where you believe challenges may exist in obtaining data or accessing information. It’s always better to acknowledge this than to have it brought up by your reader.

V.  Preliminary Suppositions and Implications

Just because you don’t have to actually conduct the study and analyze the results, doesn’t mean you can skip talking about the analytical process and potential implications. The purpose of this section is to argue how and in what ways you believe your research will refine, revise, or extend existing knowledge in the subject area under investigation. Depending on the aims and objectives of your study, describe how the anticipated results will impact future scholarly research, theory, practice, forms of interventions, or policymaking. Note that such discussions may have either substantive [a potential new policy], theoretical [a potential new understanding], or methodological [a potential new way of analyzing] significance.
 
When thinking about the potential implications of your study, ask the following questions:

  • What might the results mean in regards to the theoretical framework that underpins the study?
  • What suggestions for subsequent research could arise from the potential outcomes of the study?
  • What will the results mean to practitioners in the natural settings of their workplace?
  • Will the results influence programs, methods, and/or forms of intervention?
  • How might the results contribute to the solution of social, economic, or other types of problems?
  • Will the results influence policy decisions?
  • In what way do individuals or groups benefit should your study be pursued?
  • What will be improved or changed as a result of the proposed research?
  • How will the results of the study be implemented, and what innovations will come about?

NOTE:  This section should not delve into idle speculation, opinion, or be formulated on the basis of unclear evidence. The purpose is to reflect upon gaps or understudied areas of the current literature and describe how your proposed research contributes to a new understanding of the research problem should the study be implemented as designed.


VI.  Conclusion

The conclusion reiterates the importance or significance of your proposal and provides a brief summary of the entire study. This section should be only one or two paragraphs long, emphasizing why the research problem is worth investigating, why your research study is unique, and how it should advance existing knowledge.

Someone reading this section should come away with an understanding of:

  • Why the study should be done,
  • The specific purpose of the study and the research questions it attempts to answer,
  • The decision to why the research design and methods used where chosen over other options,
  • The potential implications emerging from your proposed study of the research problem, and
  • A sense of how your study fits within the broader scholarship about the research problem.

VII.  Citations

As with any scholarly research paper, you must cite the sources you used in composing your proposal. In a standard research proposal, this section can take two forms, so consult with your professor about which one is preferred.

  1. References — lists only the literature that you actually used or cited in your proposal.
  2. Bibliography — lists everything you used or cited in your proposal, with additional citations to any key sources relevant to understanding the research problem.

In either case, this section should testify to the fact that you did enough preparatory work to make sure the project will complement and not duplicate the efforts of other researchers. Start a new page and use the heading "References" or "Bibliography" centered at the top of the page. Cited works should always use a standard format that follows the writing style advised by the discipline of your course [i.e., education=APA; history=Chicago, etc] or that is preferred by your professor. This section normally does not count towards the total page length of your research proposal.


Develop a Research Proposal: Writing the Proposal . Office of Library Information Services. Baltimore County Public Schools; Heath, M. Teresa Pereira and Caroline Tynan. “Crafting a Research Proposal.” The Marketing Review 10 (Summer 2010): 147-168; Jones, Mark. “Writing a Research Proposal.” In MasterClass in Geography Education: Transforming Teaching and Learning. Graham Butt, editor. (New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015), pp. 113-127; Juni, Muhamad Hanafiah. “Writing a Research Proposal.” International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences 1 (September/October 2014): 229-240; Krathwohl, David R. How to Prepare a Dissertation Proposal: Suggestions for Students in Education and the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2005; Procter, Margaret. The Academic Proposal . The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Punch, Keith and Wayne McGowan. "Developing and Writing a Research Proposal." In From Postgraduate to Social Scientist: A Guide to Key Skills. Nigel Gilbert, ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006), 59-81; Wong, Paul T. P. How to Write a Research Proposal . International Network on Personal Meaning. Trinity Western University; Writing Academic Proposals: Conferences, Articles, and Books . The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Writing a Research Proposal . University Library. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  • << Previous: Writing a Policy Memo
  • Next: Acknowledgements >>

  • Last Updated: Aug 28, 2018 5:32 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide
  • Print Page
Login to LibApps

Subjects:
General Reference & Research Help

Tags:
citation , writing_support




© University of Southern California

Contact us























MORE






Sign In Join


44
  • Owlcation »
  • Academia »
  • Essays

How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper

Updated on May 9, 2016

Londonlady profile image
Laura Writes

more

What is a Proposal Essay?

A proposal essay is exactly what it sounds like: it proposes an idea and provides evidence intended to convince the reader why that idea is a good or bad one.

Although proposals are generally a significant part of business and economic transactions, they are not limited to those two areas. Proposals may be written for any college classes, scientific fields, as well as personal and other professional areas.

This article will go over how to write an effective proposal essay and provide a sample one that was actually submitted and implemented.

Before You Start: Pre-Writing Strategies

Much of the work is done before you type a single sentence. Before sitting down to write your proposal you’ll want to spend some time on each of the following.

  1. Get to Know Your Audience. Remember, a proposal essay is an effort to convince a reader that your idea is worth pursuing – or that another idea is not worth pursuing. To that end, you have to know who you’ll be writing for. Are they business people? Academics? Government officials? If your audience is primarily business people you’ll want to justify your proposal by pointing to possible financial benefits. If they’re government officials, you may want to emphasize how popular a certain proposal is.
  2. Do Your Research. Having secondary sources who can support your claims will go a long way to persuading others of your proposal. Spend some time talking to experts or reading their research.
  3. Pre-Write. Before starting the actual essay, spend some time brainstorming excellent ideas. Once you have a bunch of good ideas, spend some time thinking about how you’d like to organize them.
  4. Revise, Revise, Revise. Never turn in a first draft! Have a trusted peer or colleague read your paper and give you feedback. Then take some time to incorporate that feedback into a second draft.

Main Parts of a Proposal Essay

The main parts of a proposal essay are summarized here. It is important to keep in mind that depending on your proposal parts may need to be added or taken out. The parts below (with the exception of the introduction and conclusion) may be rearranged to suit individual proposals.

  • Introduction
  • Proposal
  • Plan of action
  • Desired outcomes
  • Resources needed
  • Conclusion

1. Introduction

The introduction serves to inform your reader of the history of the proposal (if applicable) or to introduce a subject to an informed/uninformed audience.

This is the most important part of your paper in some respects. You need to both introduce the topic and show the audience why they should care about this topic. It’s often helpful to begin with an interesting fact, statistic, or anecdote to grab the reader’s attention.

Typically, people only make proposal to solve a problem. As such, you’ll want to highlight a particular problem that you think your proposal would solve. Know your audience so that you can emphasize the benefits your proposal would bring.

2. Proposal

This is a statement of purpose. This section should be brief and only discuss what your actual proposition is. It is okay for this section to be only a few sentences long if the proposal is short. Do not include details about how you will carry out the proposal in this section.

3. Plan of Action

How will you go about achieving your proposal? What will you do to show your audience that you are prepared? This is where you go into detail about how your proposal will be implemented. A couple things to include:

  1. Convince: You need to convince your audience not only that your proposal is a good idea but also that you’re the person who needs to carry it out. Highlighting your qualifications about why you’re suited for the task is helpful if you’re the one to carry out the proposal.
  2. Detail: In discussing the implementation, you’ll want to give enough detail to show your audience that you’ve thought about how the process will work. That said, you don’t want to bore them with overly-technical or boring details.
  3. Anticipate: Anticipating potential implementation problems is both good practice and communicates to your audience that you’ve thought carefully about your proposal and about potential stumbling blocks.

4. Will it work?

Focus this area on why the proposal will work. Quite simply, is it a viable proposal? You can draw on similar past experiences to show why this proposal will work just like previous ones. If you do not have this “past experience” option, focus on what you think your audience wants to hear. For example, if your manager really likes getting things done on time, then perhaps you might mention how your proposal can speed up productivity. Think logically here.

*Tip: Do not structure this section the same way as your “Benefits of…” section.

5. Desired outcomes

Simple. State what the goals of your proposal are. It might seem repetitive with the sections where you mentioned the benefits, but it serves to really “drill” home the point.*

6. Necessary Resources

Another simple part. What is needed to complete your proposal? Include tangible (paper, money, computers, etc.)and intangible items such as time.

7. Preparations Made

Show the audience that you know what you are doing. The more prepared you look the better your chances are to get the proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for a class).

8. Conclusion

Do NOT restate your introduction here if you choose to mention the “history” of a certain proposal. However if you did not introduce your proposal with some historical background information, here is the part where you can quickly restate each section above: Proposal, plan of action, all the “why’s” of the paper and so on.

9. Works Cited/Consulted

As in any essay or paper, cite your sources as appropriate. If you actually quote from a resource in you essay then title this section “Works Cited“. If you do not cite anything word for word, use “Works Consulted“.

Purdue Online Writing Lab

  • The Online Writing Lab (OWL)
    The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue’s campus. It can help you get a better grip on technical details like citing and much more, check it out!

Sample Proposal Paper

Collage Proposal

Introduction

In 1912, Pablo Picasso, an avid painter of nature and still life, tore part of a makeshift tablecloth and glued it to his painting, Still Life with Chair Caning, and thus, by adding different items to aid his painting, he began the art of collage making. (Pablo Picasso – Still Life with Chair Canning). A collage is simply a group of objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or memory. For example, David Modler created a collage called “Big Bug” to represent the irony that is the importance of insects to our natural world in comparison to their size. The bug in the image is the smallest feature of the collage yet it is to be viewed as the most important aspect (Modler, David). All these parts of a collage collaborate together to create a unifying theme or message and can be used as a helpful tool in education.

Statement of Purpose

I propose that each student make an artistic collage to be presented to the class that will symbolize the context, audience, setting, structure or any key ideas found in one of the readings this semester. Students who make a collage will be able to drop the lowest quiz grade.

Plan of Action

The students will have one week from the announcement of the project to complete the collage and prepare a presentation for it. Each student must choose one reading that we have done so far or will read in the future, and no two students may choose the same work. Conflict with students wanting to present the same work will be resolved by a first come first serve basis. The students will be given a rubric with the exact requirements of the project and what the purpose of the project is.

I will make the rubric myself and submit it for approval, or we can use the rubric that I have attached.

Benefits of Collage Proposal

  1. Making a collage would allow the students to think and inspect the readings and ideas visually (Rodrigo, “Collage”), thus giving them another perspective, or possibly clearing up any misconceptions and confusions they had about a work when we were just discussing it in class verbally.
  2. A collage provides the opportunity for revision of a certain work and would certainly help to clear up any topics in the readings that might come up on the final exam or a future test, via a visual and more creative method.
  3. If a student received a bad grade on a quiz because they did not understand the reading, the collage would give the student an opportunity to go back to the reading and understand it, or to read ahead and grasp concepts that might be useful to present to the class before the class does the reading. A collage would allow the student to become familiar with the work in a visual way and give them an opportunity to understand the main themes, topics, and ideas of a work, even one we might not have read yet.

Viability of Collage Proposal

Since a collage would be like giving the student an opportunity to go back and review a subject and at the same time would resemble preparation for a presentation, the time and effort required to go back and re-read a work as well as prepare the collage creatively would be sufficient to justify replacing the lowest quiz grade.

Our course mentor said that this project would be a nice addition to the class because, just like any play is better seen than read, the collage will allow students to get the visual aspect behind a work and help them to grasp the ideas better.

Past visuals that we have used in class to describe scenes from our readings such as The Tempest and The Odyssey have greatly helped me to understand some of the ideas of the stories. For example, I always pictured the cyclops as a nasty, vile creature, but after some of the “fuzzy” drawings on the board done by some of my peers, I imagined and understood that he could in fact be a gentle creature that was just angered by Ulysses trespassing and blinding him. I could not have seen that perspective of the story had it not been for some of the more innocent visuals on the board.

Finally, I have discussed with the students in our class about the idea of a collage replacing the lowest quiz grade and the overwhelming majority approved of the idea. Since a collage will substitute for a quiz grade, the assignment will be optional. Just as a quiz is almost always optional based on class initiation of discussion, the collage will also be optional based on similar student effort parameters. The students who do not want to do a collage can choose “door number 2” and take a quiz that would be created by the teachers and/or myself. This quiz can be used to make the total number of assignments for each student in the class even, and may or may not be graded based on the professor’s discretion.

Desired Outcomes

The first goal of my collage proposal is to give students a chance to be creative and step outside the boundaries of classroom discussion. They can use their imaginations to find a way to creatively put together a collage that will help the class as well as themselves to better understand the course reading.

A second goal of my proposal is that the time and effort put into making the collage and presenting it in front of the class will equal the worth of dropping the lowest quiz grade. Because this collage requires the creator to examine the context, audience, setting, structure of any one of the readings, it is essentially like a quiz itself, which includes questions on similar topics.

Necessary Resources

The literary work that a student chooses to create a collage on will determine how much time is necessary to fully complete the project. One week to create a collage should give each student—no matter what reading they choose to do—ample time to create a presentable and educational collage for the class.

In terms of tangible resources, this project is not very demanding. A simple poster or a series of photographs or drawings assembled neatly together by the student will be about as resourcefully demanding as this project gets.

In addition, a few hours of class time will need to be allocated in order to present the collages. If each student takes at least five minutes to present the total time needed for the presentations will be 1 hour and 15 minutes. The presentation day(s) and time(s) can be decided by the class as a whole.

The rest of the resources needed are already available:

  • The readings are all published online if a student needs to refer back to them
  • Craft supplies are readily available

Skills for Successful Completion

  • As a good planner and organizer I made a rubric that is specific enough to give the students a good idea of what they should be doing for the collage. The rubric can be made available upon your request.
  • In addition I can also come up with a quiz if there are students who want to opt out of the collage project.
  • I can talk to the class and come up with a good presentation time and date for everybody.
  • I would volunteer myself to hold an early presentation session a few days before the due date so the others can get an idea of what their collage could look like and why they can benefit from the project.
  • I will make myself available to the class if they have any questions about the proposed project.

Conclusion

A collage will allow students to understand visually a reading or topic in a reading that they may have been confused about. The project is a fun and creative way to get students to think about a reading more in depth as well as review for future exams. As a result of the effort and time put into the collages, the students should be allowed to drop their lowest quiz grade in the semester.

Works Cited

Modler, David. Big Bug. Photograph.Kronos Art Gallery. Web. 12 Oct. 2011

“Pablo Picasso – Still Life with Chair Caning (1912).” Lenin Imports. Web. 12 Oct. 2011.

Rodrigo. “Collages.” Web 2.0 Toolkit. 11 Mar. 2009. Web. 2 Oct. 2011.

More Help

  • How To Write A Lab Report
    Here is an example of lab report with step-by-step instructions on writing a good lab report. When writing a lab report you are presenting scientific facts that support a hypothesis, to an audience..

Questions & Answers

    © 2011 Laura Writes

    Related

    • How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers

      Essays

      How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers

      by Virginia Kearney8

    • How to Write in the Format of a 3.5 Essay

      Essays

      How to Write in the Format of a 3.5 Essay

      by Jessica Marello10

    • How to Write an Analysis Response Essay

      Essays

      How to Write an Analysis Response Essay

      by Virginia Kearney2

    • How to Write an Interview Essay or Paper

      Essays

      How to Write an Interview Essay or Paper

      by Virginia Kearney7

    Popular

    • Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays

      Essays

      Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays

      by Virginia Kearney184

    • 100 Reflective Essay Topic Ideas

      Essays

      100 Reflective Essay Topic Ideas

      by Virginia Kearney8

    • 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays

      Essays

      100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays

      by Virginia Kearney42

    Comments


    • profile image

      Akhila 

      8 weeks ago

      Need clear and more examples

    • profile image

      Gayathri 

      6 months ago

      Could have given examples on good ones and bad ones . :/ still 90% helpful, thank you.

    • profile image

      May Oo Khaing 

      6 months ago

      very helpful for writing project proposal papers.

      Thanks.

    • profile image

      Kirui Cyrus 

      7 months ago

      What an excellent hub. I’ll call it tutorial for learners. It really helps one understand the start point even if everything seems blank

      Thank you.

    • profile image

      charbie krin 

      11 months ago

      very understandable 🙂

      Good…

    • profile image

      samuel 

      14 months ago

      NIce, very helpful

    • LFC328 profile image

      LFC328 

      17 months ago from NY

      Laura, what a great skill you have. I wish I was bless with it :_). thank you so very much for the information. It have gave me a guideline for my proposal. Thank you again God bless you!

    • profile image

      Londy 

      19 months ago

      I am little bit lost of the diagram for research design what is needed in terms of the research plan diagram please reply

    • profile image

      cedricperkins 

      3 years ago

      A powerful guide in fact. It lists almost all aspects of writing a proposal essay. However, there is one thing students have to note. Even though there are certain rules and principles for writing an essay, there is always scope for breaking the conventions. Universities always accept innovations in writing. Be prepared to write in the most recent writing mechanics. I think www.classessays.com will help you to write proposal essays to emerge out successfully. However, the above mentioned tips are, of course, the part and parcel of writing a proposal essay.

    • profile image

      roselinda nyota 

      3 years ago

      awesome guideline….

    • afahrurroji profile image

      Ahmad Fahrurroji 

      3 years ago from Karawang, Indonesia

      Awesome hub and so helpful.

    • Rakim Cheeks profile image

      Rakim Cheeks 

      3 years ago

      This was a really great detailed format of how to write a proposal essay. I believe all college students need to read this! As a writer, this helped me, and you explained it very well. Excellent job!

    • Londonlady profile imageAUTHOR

      Laura Writes 

      3 years ago

      Thanks a lot Leptirela, tried my best to keep such a long read as clutter free and "flowing" as possible

    • profile image

      Leptirela 

      3 years ago

      Excellent hub. Informative and understandable.

      May I please express how, impressive this hub and the lay out is 🙂

    • profile image

      EssayProfy 

      3 years ago

      Great post. Interesting infographic how to write an argumentative essay http://www.essay-profy.com/blog/how-to-write-an-es… 

    • profile image

      Larry 

      3 years ago

      The challenge in writing a proposal resides in its structure.

      For the writer it is important that it be clear, to the point and as concise as possible.

      It is important to remember that the reader is the one who will accept or reject your proposal either way due to a wide array of factors. Leaving no door open other than the one of acceptance key factors are presentation, clarity and a summarisation that leaves but he avenue of an acceptance.

      Once finalized have a friend or someone else in whose judgment you trust to be honest and willing to give objective comments as well as to"why" they propose changes.

      One practice I enforce when writing anything that is consequential is to set the document aside forgetting about it for a couple of days and the review it again. A fresh read is always good.

      One last tough. Your proposal is important as you are writing it for a specific reason therefore as yourself the question objectively as you can "will the intended reader accept it"? If you have a slight hesitation review it again and try to find the weak point and rewrite it to give it strength.

      Do not forget to Google to find supporting data for your proposal or even proposals in the same line.

      Best of luck to all.

      Larry

    • profile image

      Alyssa 

      3 years ago

      This was extremely helpful! I wasn’t quite sure how to lay my proposal essay out. So thank you, thank you! (:

    • profile image

      cynthia 

      4 years ago

      This information was very helpful. You gave me something to go on. Thank you.

    • profile image

      Stephanie 

      4 years ago

      This was a great go-by. Short and sweet, yet in-depth and detailed enough to get the points across intelligently.

    • profile image

      ELSID 

      4 years ago

      Thanks for your help!

    • Jo_Goldsmith11 profile image

      Jo_Goldsmith11 

      4 years ago

      Just what I was looking for. Great job with presentation and easy reading on the eyes~ shared, tweet and Up…thank you for writing this. 🙂

    • Londonlady profile imageAUTHOR

      Laura Writes 

      4 years ago

      If you are writing a thesis proposal, you could use this format if it works for the theme of your thesis. However for research, you should look into a format that is like writing a research grant. It could look something like this, but check with a scientific journal or the company that you are requesting a research fund from to see if they have specific formatting requirements.

    • profile image

      Ayman 

      4 years ago

      Is this the same Thesis Proposal or research Proposal?

    • profile image

      EJ 

      4 years ago

      Thank you so much

    • profile image

      5 years ago

      Very good and helpful. Really clear and straight forward.

    • profile image

      Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga 

      5 years ago

      Nice info and it’s a practical round up with good resources.

      Thanks,

      Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga.

    • My Moments profile image

      My Moments 

      5 years ago

      I have been a grant writer for sixteen years and it’s always nice to see someone include the actual practice with the theory of proposal/grant writing. Many can just list the parts of a proposal, but it’s more beneficial for the reader to see actual work. Great job!

    • Londonlady profile imageAUTHOR

      Laura Writes 

      5 years ago

      No problem, good luck on your papers!

    • profile image

      Aryal Umesh 

      5 years ago

      Its great .

      Thanks a lot.

    • profile image

      daphine 

      5 years ago

      Thx London 4 ur contribution

      in building ma proposal

    • profile image

      codjoe conduah 

      5 years ago

      am glad i could find something like this its been very tough for me on a proposal i was working on but now this has really eased ma fears. thanks a lot

    • Londonlady profile imageAUTHOR

      Laura Writes 

      5 years ago

      I’m glad this is proving useful to everybody. Good luck on your papers!

    • profile image

      samuel sikei 

      5 years ago

      Thank you, this is so direct and very professional.

    • Anil and Honey profile image

      Anil 

      5 years ago from Kerala

      Hai nice essay. I suggest it to the school and college students.

      Thanks for sharing .

    • profile image

      hliz 

      5 years ago

      thank you sosososososososososososo much

    • profile image

      mumtaz 

      5 years ago

      so nice dear……….

    • profile image

      🙂 

      5 years ago

      thx for the awesome outline

    • profile image

      Theo 

      5 years ago

      This has been excellent explained…

    • profile image

      Senze 

      5 years ago

      This is great, extremely helpful.

    • profile image

      sarah 

      6 years ago

      Very nice!!!

    • profile image

      Alexander 

      6 years ago

      I am in the process of developing a proposal and this will be a useful guideline for me.

      Thank you

    • profile image

      jessica ramirez 

      6 years ago

      excellent very helpful(:

    • Londonlady profile imageAUTHOR

      Laura Writes 

      6 years ago

      Thank you, I’m glad you found this useful

    • profile image

      Joseph Asumadu 

      6 years ago from Ghana-aWest Africa

      This is very good thump up.